best bread maker for pizza dough: Breville, Zojirushi,

3 trophy

Zojirushi

(Recommended)

Top Features

  • Best for making pizza dough
  • Retards overnight for richer flavor
  •  Double kneading blades for thorough kneading
  • Large LCD display for course selection
  • Multiple health course settings (Multigrain, Whole Wheat, Rapid Whole Wheat, Gluten Free, Salt Free, Sugar Free and Vegan)
  • Dual heaters – at the bottom and at the top for even browning and texture.
2 trophy

T Fal

Top Features

  • Gluten free bread maker
  • 15 bread making settings (See them)
  • 3 loaf sizes (1, 1.5, or 2 pounds);
  • 3 crust settings (light, medium, or dark)
  • Digital LCD Display
  • Automatic Keep Warm
  • Delay start
  • 700 watts of power
1 trophy

 Cuisinart

Top Features

  • Low carb and gluten free pre-sets
  • Limited 3 year Warranty
  • 680 Watts
  • Makes pizza dough with even textures

Remember when you were young and your mother or father made some of the best food in the world? It seemed like the food that came from their fingers had a little taste of magic. Even if neither you nor your parents cooked, there is no escaping the fact that a home-cooked meal is some of the best food in the world.

Homemade bread is one of life’s great joys. If you have never had homemade bread, think about the last time you went to a bakery versus the grocery store. The difference in quality is almost night and day. Why? First of all, most of the bread made for grocery stores have gone through a machine process, leaving no room for chance or imagination. Second, a bakery knows how to bake several types of bread and use skilled techniques to give the bag of flour extraordinary flavor.

Creating a homemaker’s life by having the best food in your home is a common dream. Often, however, life gets in the way and prevents you from making true masterpieces simply because there is no time. Bread makers give you the best of both worlds: the bread is made in your own home and with a variety of flavors and styles, but most of it is hands-off. So, you can go to that annoying work meeting and have delicious bread waiting for you when you come home.

Though bread makers often require a few hours to pound out a good loaf, you can also choose whatever type of bread you please. You will come across recipes that are unusual but doable, especially for people who are just starting out. The ingredients for any bread making machine are often cheap, and just a few ingredients can go a long way. Compared to a store-bought $2.00 loaf of bread, the $0.80 it takes to bake bread in your own home really adds up over time.

For those of us allergic to gluten, it seems like only a fevered dream to think that a bread-making guide would be made for you, but that is simply not the case. The internet contains recipes designed for people who suffer from Celiac disease so they can enjoy the bread community as well. Thousands of people who are glucose intolerant or simply prefer bread without gluten can have the same joy of eating bread as others.

The best bread makers for pizza dough

Making bread can be extremely satisfying, but it is often also extremely time-consuming. In fact, some bread takes many hours to make, and most of that time is spent waiting for the bread to rise. In many cases, if the bread is not kneaded and left to rise at the right time, you may end up with dry or deflated bread, and all of that hard work may seem like a total waste. If you have a busy schedule, it is almost impossible to find time to make bread, especially if you are running errands all day. Bread machines are the perfect tools to give you those wonderful loaves without lifting a finger.

The key to good bread comes from its machines. Whether you are new to bread machines or you have been using them for years, there is always space for a new bread machine. Some of the best bread machines on the market have a wide variety of options to accommodate any loaf, but not every machine fits in every budget. When looking for a quality bread machine, find something that works without much assistance but offers the right heat and mixing capabilities. Assuming you are new to bread machines, it can seem overly complicated and overwhelming to find a machine that fits within that criteria. We know your time is precious, so find the best bread machine here.

Zojirushi Bakery Virtuoso Breadmaker

One of the most celebrated bread makers is the Zojirushi Bakery Virtuoso Breadmaker, and it is no surprise why. With its many settings and high capabilities, it is a force to be reckoned with. It has settings for bread, dough, and jam — a nifty addition for people who like to bake.

Performance: The Zojirushi Bakery Virtuoso Breadmaker is one of the best performers in the market. If you are new to bread making, it is often difficult to know when to add which ingredients, and busy people often find that bread making is simply not an option. However, this bread machine gets your bread recipes right every time. Timing is everything in bread making, but the Zojirushi Bakery Virtuoso Breadmaker handles all timing for you. Even when you put in ingredients in the wrong order, this bread maker will provide a perfect loaf every time.

Every loaf maintains the perfect shape, regardless of the improper order of ingredients entered. The only loaf that may not look as professional as the others is the gluten-free loaf; even so, the loaf does not lose any flavor. Even a pound cake made in the bread maker returned a beautiful shape.

Design: The photo of the bread maker does not do it justice. This is a large bread maker that is heavy to lug around, so if you use your bread machine a lot, you may need to let it live on the countertop. It is hefty because it is made of quality materials. The bread pan is made from heavy-duty metal that keeps the temperature of your bread regulated. The pan is easy to release, and often the bread falls right out. The pan can hold up to two pounds of bread, so it requires a big base.

The paddles in the Zojirushi Bakery Virtuoso Breadmaker do not fall out when the bread is out of the pan. This, though small, is one of the best features of the design. You do not have to worry about digging the paddles out from the loaves.

The bread maker has a clear top, letting you look inside while it is making the bread. It is often hypnotic to watch the paddles knead the bread, so be prepared to spend a lot of time looking down at the machine from above. The paddles ensure that the bread is kneaded thoroughly, so you will not have lumpy bread.

It has 13 settings for bread, jam, and dough, but there are quick options that let you create your bread faster. Salt-free, sugar-free, and vegan settings are listed, which is a large bonus. Some of the organic materials used in these alternative breads are often difficult to bake correctly, but the Zojirushi Bakery Virtuoso Breadmaker takes the guesswork out of it.

Verdict: The Zojirushi Bakery Virtuoso Breadmaker was designed with the ultimate bread maker in mind, so if you do not plan on using the bread maker often, it might not be the best choice. It is more expensive than many bread makers, so if you are just starting out and do not know how much you will depend on a bread maker, this may not be the right choice. However, with the settings, design, and performance, if you are an aspiring cook, this product is well worth the price.

 Oster 2LB Expressbake Bread Machine

The Oster 2LB Expressbake Bread Machine is the best machine for your budget. It is simpler than the Zojirushi model, but it does a good job. If you are looking for something that is beginner-friendly but still has the chops to stand with the big machines, this is the right choice for you. The price is also average, so you do not have to worry about spending too much to make some great bread.

Performance: Even if you are not new to bread making, you will find that the Oster 2LB Expressbake Bread Machine is top in its class for bread making. The basic recipes for this machine are performed well, and they look quite attractive, too. The Expressbake feature lets you make bread in around an hour, which is an especially good feature if you are in a pinch.

However, you must follow the bread recipes exactly to get the best results. Unlike the Zojirushi, the Oster 2LB Expressbake Bread Machine requires exact measurements or the results are not perfect. That is not to say that the machine will ruin your loaf of bread, but if you want competitive-grade bread, you have to do some experimenting first. Sometimes, the best option for adjusting the recipe is lowering or raising the amount of yeast by a factor of ¼ teaspoon.

Design: The design is very simple. If you are caught up on the looks of the design, you may be disappointed. The controls are located at the top of the bread machine, and the top contains a small, circular viewing area. It does not have the same hypnotizing effect as the Zojirushi simply because it does not have the same space. The front of the machine is equally bland as all of the features are at the top. The bread machine comes in white and is a square shape.

Though it may be lacking in the looks department, the Oster 2LB Expressbake Bread Machine does have a lot of room for growth. At eight pounds, the device is lightweight but can create breads of up to two pounds. It can create dough, jam, and bread, and is reliable for every type of project.

The bread maker is unique in its ability to postpone the baking of bread for 13 hours. Of course, there is no clock on the display, so you have to do the math yourself. However, this feature may be a saving grace for busy people who want to just throw in ingredients and run.

Verdict: The Oster 2LB Expressbake Bread Machine is a very handy and well-designed bread machine that offers quality products at a price that is hard to beat. It consistently bakes well-cooked loaves, but the sides and top may have different colors. For a starter bread machine, this is a great buy.

best bread maker for gluten free recipes: T-Fal ActiBread Programmable Machine

Gluten-free foods are some of the most difficult to cook, and gluten-based food that was created thousands of years ago makes it even more difficult to recreate. Many people, however, have an intolerance to gluten, which makes it difficult for them to eat lots of carbs that others enjoy.

The T-Fal ActiBread Programmable Machine was created to make bread magic, and its gluten-free bread is one of its best features. Substitutes for gluten often result in different cooking times, heats, and handling. This bread maker is designed to cover those hurdles and create beautiful bread to boot.

Performance: Though the T-Fal ActiBread Programmable Machine has 15 options from bread to jams, its real strengths lie in the gluten-free options. It makes near-perfect loaves every time and is highly dependable. Another great option is its ability to bake multiple types of gluten-free foods. The T-Fal company acknowledged its excellent gluten-free bread and built upon that. It also offers sweet bread and cake settings that bake exceptionally well.

The drawback, however, is in the thickness of the bread crusts. If you are looking for something light and fluffy, you may not like what this bread maker creates. However, if you like the thicker crusts of French bread, then this is the machine for you.

Design: The T-Fal ActiBread Programmable Machine is a highly attractive machine with a stainless steel body and a black plastic cover. The controls are located at the top of the machine, and there is a small viewing hole from which to see the bread. The machine explains the types of settings on the maker itself, all displayed beautifully. It is easy to understand, and is perfect for beginners and advanced bread makers alike.

However, the instruction manual leaves something to be desired: It only contains ten recipes. With 15 settings, it makes sense to have more recipes, but they insist that purchasers buy pre-boxed recipes. The bread pan is also small and vertical, which means you will get really tall bread — definitely something you will not see every day at the bakery.

Verdict: The T-Fal ActiBread Programmable Machine is unmatched in its ability to create quality gluten-free bread, but you must know something about bread making to use this machine. For the price, however, this is a great buy.

best bread maker for pizza dough: Hamilton Beach Programmable Bread Machine

When it comes to baking, sometimes there is just not enough time in a day. That is why Hamilton Beach created its Programmable Bread Machine. Have you ever thought of how fun it would be to have raisins or pieces of fruit in your bread? The Hamilton Beach Programmable Bread Machine allows for easy bread making without making you babysit each loaf. Its individual programs bake through the stops to add ingredients, so you know that your bread will be perfect when it comes out.

Performance: When it comes to a bread machine that kneads dough, bakes bread, and is reliable, the Hamilton Beach Programmable Bread Machine mostly has you covered. Of course, there are several problems with the work. For example, the bread maker is known to leave flour spots on the sides of the bread, and you might have to dig out the bread paddle for nearly every bake.

The Hamilton Beach Programmable Bread Machine creates a wide variety of baked goods, including jam, dough, bread, and cake. So far, the results have been mixed. Many critics believe that the lack of consistency when backing with the bread maker has to do with the recipes. After all, not every recipe will take to every bread maker. However, there may be enough deviance from consistent baking to give you pause when choosing a bread maker. If you are new to bread machines, you may become frustrated that the basic recipes do not yield the kind of beautiful loaves you see in pictures.

Design: The Hamilton Beach Programmable Bread Machine is not the fanciest in design, but it presents a clean look. It is black with buttons located at the top along with a small, circular window to see what you are baking. The sides have generous grips to help you lug it in and out of storage. At 15 pounds, it is not the lightest, but it is easier to heft than some of the more expensive models.

The bread maker is designed to bake three types of loaves: 1, 1.5, and 2 pounds, but they may not look like traditional loaves. The bread maker has tall sides that take up most of the volume, so the more pounds packed in each loaf, the more uneven the loaf will be. This is, however, not a deal-breaker, as the bread maker continues to make quality loaves if properly prepared.

The Hamilton Beach Programmable Bread Machine’s quick bread cycle is not for fast baking, though the name may imply so. It is, instead, used for yeast-free creations, such as pumpkin bread. Before you put too much faith in this bread maker for a dinner party, test the waters on your own.

Verdict: The Hamilton Beach Programmable Bread Machine can hold its own with some of the more expensive models, but it will not yield consistent results. If you are just starting out, you may find that this bread maker’s quirks are too difficult to navigate. If, however, you are more experienced and want a hands-free baking session, this is an excellent bread maker.

Best bread maker for pizza dough Tips and Tricks

When you first start to make bread, you may expect to just put the ingredients inside the pan and let the bread maker do the rest. While this is an entirely reasonable way to start making bread, it’s good to start learning some of the tricks of the trade to get the best bread in your neighborhood.

Start Simple

It should come as no surprise that the best way to get your feet wet in the bread making machine world is to start with simple recipes. If your great-grandmother had the best bread in the world that was made with 25 spices and it takes over 24 hours to make, do not be surprised if your first attempt does not yield proper results. Try no-brainer recipes and breads that are easy to complete and involve few ingredients. Even the recipes in bread maker booklets sometimes do not work. Your skills improve as you adjust the ingredients to your liking and find out what works best.

Some of the simplest recipes are online, and they are often bad-review proof. As the Internet has grown, great sites, such as Pinterest, have places to keep your recipes to try over and over. Take your time getting used to the machine before you try breads not normally cooked in a bread maker. Every machine is different, so get used to yours before you move to more complicated recipes.

Be Cautious About Substitutions

Bread makers are especially susceptible to slight changes in recipes. Something as little as a change in the type of flour you use could result in bread completely different than what you made before. That is because all flours have different gluten ratios and density. For example, you may find that you have denser bread when you use all-purpose flour as opposed to bread flour. Since bread is primarily made from flour, any small changes are noticeable.

Also, consider what yeast you use in your recipes. If the recipe calls for instant yeast, do not substitute it with regular yeast. Yeast is one of the most difficult parts of bread making to get right. First, you must find the correct temperature for the yeast to grow. Anything too hot will kill all the yeast cells, and anything too cold will make them remain dormant. This is why yeast is commonly kept refrigerated. Recipes also generally include the brand of yeast they used in their recipes. If you can, try to find the same products.

Don’t be Afraid to Peek

Perhaps the most important advice here is to always monitor your bread. Bread machines have windows for a reason, but you may not be able to see the churning dough within. Besides, as the yeast grows, condensation builds up at the top of the machine, blocking your view. It is certainly not bad to open the lid to take a look; in fact, that is what you should do with every baking project.

Paddles may come off of their rotators, rendering them useless. If half of your loaf is a brown mess while the other half holds some promise, it is likely that your paddle has been removed. So, about ten minutes into the bread machine cycle, check to make sure that everything is rotating smoothly. Make sure that the paddles click into their designated spots and continue to turn. Many a bread maker has felt the sting of finding no blade when they reach their hands down inside of the machine.

Check the consistency of the dough at about 10 minutes to see how everything is forming. If your dough is too wet, it will not cook properly, and it will become crumbly and soggy. If the dough appears goopy and has no grip on the other parts of the dough, it can be fixed. To fix this problem, slowly add flour to the mixture, one tablespoon at a time. On the flip side, bread dough may mix to become far too dry. The dough stays at the center of the bread machine and does not touch the edges. To fix this, add water in tablespoon increments to the machine. Perfect dough should stick to the sides of the pan but also form a ball.

Check on the bread frequently as well. Though it is often unwise to open the lid frequently when the bread machine is baking, it never hurts to get a sneak peek of how the dough turns out. If you open the lid too often, however, the top will fall, and your bread will not hold to the famous sandwich bread shape.

Try the Dough Cycle

Though it is the most convenient to just add the ingredients to a bread machine and let it take over from there, if you use the dough cycle instead of depending solely on letting the bread maker do all of your baking, you may see some amazing results. Some bread machine gurus rarely use the baking method. They prefer to style their bread in interesting patterns or top the bread with a glaze they simply will not receive from a bread machine.

One of the best parts of fresh bread is its crust. There are hundreds of styles of bread, and each of them requires different baking techniques. Some require different temperatures while others require detailed preparation of the dough before it is baked. The crusts created through the bread machine are often beautiful, but they lack advanced techniques to make them more delicious. Though bread makers have programs to make the changes, they cannot accommodate every style. Make the dough with a bread maker, but try using an oven for the rest of the work.

Depending on the type of bread machine you purchase, there are several kinds of dough cycles from which to choose. You can allow your bread to rise within the bread machine, or you can simply create the dough and do all the work of rising yourself. Though it may take a purist to only allow the machine do the mixing, there are some people who only want the dough to be mixed thoroughly and with the right consistency. For everyone else, use the quick cycle to make dough and let it rise within the machine.

If you have a machine that has the option of waiting until the bread cycle begins, make sure that your yeast is kept away from your liquids. You do not want your dough to grow before you have started the mixing process. Follow instructions to get the best results from your bread machine.

Knead Dough After Dough Cycle

Do not pound the living daylights out of dough that has just come out of the bread maker, but it is wise to knead the dough for a minute or two. By letting the dough rest, it becomes more pliable later. Even if you do not knead the dough for more than 30 seconds, you will see an improvement in your dough.

Do Not Flour the Surface

If you are using the dough technique when creating bread, consider forgoing the floured surface. Using too much flour will make your bread flaky and too dry, which will give you a bad final product. Instead, oil the surface of your counters when kneading dough. The extra oils that soak into the bread will not affect the overall quality of the bread negatively. In fact, if you coat your bread before it goes in the oven, you will find that the crust has a better texture. You may find that flavored oils add to the overall flavor of your bread. Make sure, though, that you are not using strange oils with exotic bread, because it will ruin the flavor.

Also, using oil prevents sticky bread dough from attaching to your fingers. If you have ever worked with wet dough, you know what we mean. The oils make both the bread and your hands slippery, so sticky dough will not catch.

Handle Dough Gently

After you have let the dough rest, take it out again and start to knead it. Use a gentle approach to maintain the surface tension on the bread that will yield a larger loaf. Gently push the dough flat against the kneading surface and fold a few times. Once finished, you can shape the dough into whatever designs you enjoy the most.

Next, keep the dough in a warm spot so it can rise sufficiently. Let it rise for about twenty minutes before checking to see if it has risen enough. Poke a finger into the dough; if it bounces back and slowly slinks downward again, it is done. If you are new to baking, experiment with the results to find which works best for you. If you cannot finish with baking, stick the dough in the refrigerator for up to 24 hours. You will allow the yeast to hibernate as you wait for a time to complete the baking.

BENEFITS OF BREAD MACHINE

The bread maker is a modern invention that doesn’t get nearly as much recognition as it deserves. In contrast to toasters, mixers, and coffee machines, bread machines are the unsung heroes of kitchen appliances. Good kitchen appliances are valued because they make life a little easier. And bread machines are one of the most time-consuming and labor-intensive tasks you can do when making bread in the kitchen – and make it quick and easy. There is nothing great than eating a piece of warm, homemade bread fresh from the oven. And homemade bread not only tastes good, but it also smells heavenly. In fact, the smell of baking bread in the oven can improve your mood and help you sell your home. Most people would eat fresh homemade bread every day if they could. Bread machines are also user-friendly. Even absolute beginners can make a nice and delicious bread with the help of a bread machine. Whether you are an experienced baker or a new bread maker, there are countless reasons why you need a bread machine in your kitchen. Compared to making bread by hand, using a bread machine has several advantages. You don’t have to knead. Kneading is the most difficult part of the bread-making process. It is tiring, tedious, and leaves aching arms and tense shoulders. Yes, it can be therapeutic. Hammering a piece of bread dough is a great way to overcome your frustrations. However, if you had a nice day and just want to bake bread as quickly as possible, let the machine do the kneading for you. There is no big mess to clear up.

Making a single loaf of bread may require the use of multiple bowls, pots, pans, and utensils, all of which need to be washed and put away. It is also difficult to make bread without flour falling on the entire countertop and often on the floor. And this mess must also be cleared up. But you don’t have to worry if you use a bread machine. Everything that can lead to disorder takes place inside the machine. Apart from the bread maker, you only have to clean one or two measuring cups. Don’t worry about mistakes. There is a lot of stuff that can go wrong if you make bread entirely by hand. You couldn’t knead the dough enough. Or you knead the dough too much. Or you could make a mistake with the yeast and not let the dough rise properly. Any of these adversities can result in bread that is hard, tough. Fortunately, using a bread machine makes bread almost foolproof. You don’t have to care about how much dough to knead or whether the bread dough will rise or not. The machine does all of this for you. Now that you know the benefits of a bread machine, it’s time to choose one that suits you.

Baking with a bread machine can be a real pleasure, but the sheer number of cycles and settings can be confusing. Many early bakers are not sure what the different names actually mean. Those of you who don’t have the manual or bought your machine second-hand may need a little help with the basics. This list is intended to help you navigate through the most common settings and cycles of modern bread machines. Although bread machines are generally easy to use unless you know what the different cycles and settings mean, you can still experience a disaster instead of a masterpiece. However, the explanations above are intended to help you become more familiar with your device. Even if you don’t have a manual on hand, this should make it easier for you to get started. Have fun baking! First of all, the main advantage of a bread machine is that you can relax a little while baking bread at the same time. Yes, it is true! Believe it or not, on some machines, you just have to add all the ingredients, and then it is the one who does what is left.

How to choose a bread machine

There are many machines on the market. They come in different types and sizes and can have a variety of features. How do you determine which bread machine is suitable for you? Ask yourself these questions. How much do you want to spend? There are cheap machines that can make decent bread. However, they are usually quite small, so you can only make small bread. Even with cheap bread machines, there is usually a lack of functions. Nevertheless, if you just want to make a small piece of bread every week, a cheap machine may be all you need. How much homemade bread do you really need? Baking bread is a hobby for some people. They only make bread occasionally, usually, when they find an interesting recipe they want to try. For these hobbyists, a machine that produces small bread could be enough. For some people, baking bread is a big change in their lifestyle. For example, if you have a large family and have decided not to buy bread bought in the store, you need a larger machine. Look for a bread machine that can make at least 1 pound loaf. You can even find larger machines that make 2-pound bread. But remember that. Homemade bread contains no preservatives and is stale faster than bread bought in the store. Will your family be able to eat a 2-pound bread before it is stale? If not, stick to the £ 1 bread machine. Do you need a machine with a timer? Some breadmakers are equipped with delay switches so that you can set the breadmaker to start at a specific time. A timer allows you to set the machine to start while you are sleeping or shopping. If you do it right, your bread can be baked as soon as you get home from work. And what could be nicer after a hard day’s work than a piece of warm, freshly baked bread?

One of the major problems is deciding which model is best for your needs once you’ve decided to jump to a bread maker. Each bread machine offers a variety of settings related to the type of bread it can make. Some machines also offer additional options such as baking cakes, baking jams, or even baking low-carb bread. The manufacturers offer some of the more basic settings, but after that, all bets are disabled. If you’re looking for a budget machine, you need to understand that some of the more exotic options in your shopping budget may not be available. For successful baking, it is also very important that you read the machine manufacturer’s instructions for each function and follow these specific instructions! It is important to use the correct bread machine setting for each recipe. These settings have been programmed to adjust the times and temperatures according to the type of bread specified. They can also have customized kneading patterns and other changes.

This setting is generally used for recipes that are mostly white bread flour, although small amounts of whole wheat may be possible depending on the company. If you want to experiment with a new recipe that does not require a specific machine setting, such as For example, baguette or whole-grain bread, this is probably the setting you should try first. French and Italian bread is different from plain white bread. They require different kneading, rising, and baking patterns to achieve the desired light interior texture and crispy crust combination. Generally, these recipes do not contain butter, margarine, or milk, changes that also require adjustments. Whole wheat flour, known in some countries as whole wheat flour, is very different from normal white bread flour. Bread machines are designed to take these differences into account and still produce delicious bread. The rise time is one of the factors that have been adjusted. Whole grain bread is a particularly heavy flour. So if your bread machine does not offer a wholemeal bread setting, you should not assume that you can make adjustments successfully. It is quite possible to burn out the motor of a bread machine to make whole-grain bread in a bread machine that is not designed for it.

COOKING WITH MACHINE BREAD

You can also use it for some other dough mixes. For example, if you want to make a pizza, you can now use this device to make pizza dough, which will undoubtedly save you a lot of time. So you still have plenty of time to do laundry, wash dishes, or cook something. Another amazing advantage of this electrical device is that you can use it right away when it’s done. More specifically, this machine is also very economical because you can actually save a lot of money if you compare the price of all your ingredients with the price of a loaf of bread in the bakery. Ultimately, bread machines can give you amazing benefits. Indeed, it is one of the brilliant innovations that we currently have. On the whole, bread machines are gradually turning into a household appliance, and many people already own one at home these days.

Nothing compares to the delicious taste and astonishing aroma of freshly baked bread. But with most people’s busy lifestyles, preparing their own bread can be very time consuming, and it takes a lot of effort. Fortunately, today there are bread machines with technology that can help you with this. You can now prepare delicious bread with less time and effort and get the same taste and consistency as with traditional bread making, but with less effort with an automatic bread maker. The use of such machines offers many advantages. Bread makers make baking at home easy.